Furry but fierce, the slow loris is the world’s only venomous genus of primate. Their genus (Nycticebus) consists of several species, all of which live in South East Asia. Aptly named, this arboreal mammal moves slowly through the tropical forests of S.E. Asia. Their nocturnal lifestyle helps them to avoid competing with other diurnal primates that share their habitat, as well as staying hidden in the darkness.
The slow loris is a master of stealth. When ambling through the dense foliage, they make little to no noise. If spotted, they will freeze, remaining motionless until the threat is gone. Their natural predators include snakes, hawk-eagles and, shockingly, even orangutans. Therefore, slow lorises must stay sharp and furtive.
Omnivores, slow lorises mainly feed on insects, fruits and tree-sap. They have a few adaptations to ease the process of feeding. Firstly, they have a long, narrow tongue – one of the longest of all primates – to reach tree-sap stashed in cracks and crevices. Their hands and feet have a firm and wide grip, allowing them to maintain balance and lunge forward to capture a meal. This grip also enables them to eat using both hands whilst hanging upside down from a branch.
Arguably the most fascinating aspect of the slow loris is their venom. The toxin is obtained from their brachial gland (a gland found on their upper arm). A slow loris will lick this gland, activating the secretion of the toxin. When mixed with saliva, this venom can cause painful swelling and near fatal anaphylactic shock in humans – though incidents are very rare. The toxin is used as a deterrent to predators, however parents will also apply the toxin to their infants’ fur as a means of protection. It is thought the venom is obtained from the variety of distasteful and toxic insects that make up the slow loris’ diet.
The slow loris has a large cultural significance. Thought to be the gatekeepers to the heavens, they are often used in traditional medicine to ‘ward off evil’. Unfortunately, this is causing a decline in the population of slow lorises. Another major threat is the wildlife trade – they are often captured and kept as exotic pets. People sharing pictures and videos of these ‘exotic pets’ continues to fuel a vicious circle, so please don’t like or share any viral videos of these animals circulating online. Along with habitat loss, these threats are endangering the survival of slow lorises. Reducing the demand for slow lorises on the wildlife trade is the best way to stop the constant exploitation of these uniquely stealthy creatures.
Hennessy, K., Wiggins, V. (2014) Animal Encyclopedia: The Definitive Visual Guide. 2nd edn. London. Dorling Kindersley.