The Blue-Spotted Ribbontail Ray

Unsurprisingly, the blue-spotted ribbontail ray (Taeniura lymmais well-known for its array of electric blue spots splashed upon its murky yellow skin. These rays are found in the tropical Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean, specifically in sandy patches of coral reefs. Here, they prowl over the sandy floor, using their mouth to extract molluscs, crabs, shrimps and worms hidden beneath the surface of the sand. Although they have a barbed tail, it is only used in self-defence. If disturbed, they will usually just briskly swim away, flapping their two wing-like pectoral fins.

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Also known more simply as the blue-spotted ray, this fish uses its unique colouration as camouflage. From our perspective, these blue spots may seem like a flawed disguise but the potential of this adaptation can only be appreciated below the sea surface. The blue spots break up the ray’s outline when seen from above in the shifting sunlight of a shallow coral reef. This helps them to hide from possible predators – including hammerhead sharks and bottlenose dolphins.

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A bluespotted ray blending in with its sandy, turquoise surroundings.

The blue-spotted ribbontail ray has a tail armed with one or two sharp, barbed spines that can cause rather painful injuries. If attacked or stepped on, they may use this tail to inject venom into their attacker or repeatedly whip them, resulting in physical wounds. Although stingrays are notorious for the painful wounds they can inflict with their barbed tails, they rarely attack people. They will only launch an attack in desperate situations. Amazingly, the blue-spotted ray’s stinging barbs can be regrown if broken off.

Currently, this impressive species is considered ‘Near-Threatened’ by the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature). Their main threats are over-fishing and habitat degradation. In addition, they are popular among private aquarists due to their peculiar patterning, but this is endangering their wild population. Like most marine and aquatic species, the blue-spotted ray is poorly suited to a life in captivity since their wild habitat cannot be easily replicated.

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The main priorities right now should be implementing fishing quotas and specific net sizes to minimise the amount of rays caught by mistake, as well as conserving coral reefs. Coral reefs are one of the world’s most fragile and vulnerable ecosystems and yet are home to 25% of all marine life. If these ocean metropolises are not preserved, thousands of species like the blue-spotted ribbontail ray will face extinction.

 

Sources:

https://thewonderfulwildlifeofsamloem.wordpress.com/blue-spotted-ribbontail-ray-taeniura-lymma/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluespotted_ribbontail_ray

http://wwf.panda.org/our_work/oceans/coasts/coral_reefs/

Hennessy, K., Wiggins, V. (2014) Animal Encyclopedia: The Definitive Visual Guide. 2nd edn. London. Dorling Kindersley.

The Bee Hummingbird

The bee hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae) is the smallest species of bird on earth. Confined to Cuba, this tiny bird rarely exceeds 6cm in length. Females are slightly larger than the males but still only weigh up to 2.6 grams. To put it in perspective, the bee hummingbird is hardly larger than the diameter of a golf ball and weighs roughly the same as a penny.

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A male bee hummingbird.

Despite their unbelievably small size, bee hummingbirds are swift and skilful flyers. Hummingbirds have the fastest metabolism of any animal in the world, and this is important because the smallest hummingbirds beat their wings over 80 times per second. This rapid wing flapping creates a humming noise, hence their name. In addition, their heart rate can reach over 1,000 beats a minute.

The hummingbird’s extraordinary in-flight adaptations allow it to hover mid-air and even fly backwards (to add to their list of achievements, hummingbirds are also the only bird able to fly backwards). The bee hummingbird is especially wondrous in this respect as it can carry out all of these elegant manoeuvres whilst being not much larger than a bee.

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A female bee hummingbird.

Bee hummingbirds exhibit a vivid plumage during their breeding season. The males display iridescent reddish pink feathers on their head and neck with an array of ocean blues and aqua greens on their upper side. The females have green upper parts and a pale, grey underside. They are truly beautiful little birds.

The bee hummingbird’s diet almost entirely consists of nectar from flowers belonging to a few specific plant species. Bee hummingbirds have some natural predators – including other large birds such as hawks, falcons and kestrels – but their small size and agility usually gives them an edge above their enemies.

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An especially vibrant male bee hummingbird.

A recent fall in the bee hummingbird’s population has raised some concerns, and the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has listed their status as ‘Near Threatened’. Their primary threat is habitat loss. It would be heartbreaking to see their population dwindle any further. The bee hummingbird is the master of superlatives and I hope this post has made their brilliance clear.

 

Sources:

http://www.animalspot.net/bee-hummingbird.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bee_hummingbird

https://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/Species-Account/nb/species/beehum1/overview

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hummingbird

Hennessy, K., Wiggins, V. (2014) Animal Encyclopedia: The Definitive Visual Guide. 2nd edn. London. Dorling Kindersley.

The Gerenuk

Nicknamed the ‘giraffe gazelle’, the gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) is a long-necked antelope found in the woodland forests and open plains of the Horn of Africa (including Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti and Tanzania). At first glance, this mammal may seem rather strange, but their unique appearance only highlights the gerenuk’s superb adaptability.

Gerenuk

Like many other species – past and present – that have evolved to have a long neck, the gerenuk uses this adaptation to browse leaves, twigs and branches growing out of the reach of other antelopes. Moreover, the gerenuk can stand straight using its slender, hindlegs. Overall, this allows the gerenuk to reach vegetation 2 metres above the ground – quite a stretch considering they are less than a metre tall when on all four legs. This adaptation has proved immensely useful for the gerenuk, especially when browsing opportunities are sparse.

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The gerenuk’s long neck and slender legs allow it to reach vegetation high off the ground.

Their magnificent horns, present only on males, are lyre-shaped, resembling an ‘S’, and can reach up to 40cm in length. Their brown coat is coffee-coloured on the top but a lighter tan colour on the sides. They also have a cream-coloured underbelly and a patch of white fur around each eye. Gerenuks have quite large eyes and ears so they can easily sense when a predator is nearby.

Gerenuks live in small social groups – each herd only contains around two to six individuals – and are usually comprised of a single sex. Due to their small herds, they can fall prey to a whole host of African predators. Major predators of the gerenuk include leopards, cheetahs, lions, spotted hyenas, painted wolves, jackals and caracals. Unlike most antelopes, the gerenuk does not have a specific breeding season, meaning they have offspring throughout the year. Therefore, they most constantly be alert for predators.

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A pair of females on the look-out for potential predators.

Although their population is estimated at around 95,000 individuals, the gerenuk is under threat. Their population has fallen by 25% in the last 14 years. As human populations grow, we build more settlements, more roads and more farms which are gradually consuming this species’ natural habitat. Their current conservation status is ‘near-threatened’, but if nothing is done, they could soon be uplisted to ‘vulnerable’.

 

Sources:

https://www.awf.org/wildlife-conservation/gerenuk

https://animalcorner.co.uk/animals/gerenuk/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerenuk

Hennessy, K., Wiggins, V. (2014) Animal Encyclopedia: The Definitive Visual Guide. 2nd edn. London. Dorling Kindersley.

The Emperor Penguin

Running with the Dynasties theme, I decided that today I would write about the world’s largest penguin – the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Endemic to Antarctica, the emperor penguin is a near-threatened species which lives in huge colonies on the Antarctic ice and in the surrounding waters. They are the only penguin which breeds in winter and during their breeding season they form breeding colonies with thousands of individuals.

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Adult males and females are similar in size, reaching up to around 45 inches tall. They have a fascinatingly beautiful plumage with a black head and back juxtaposing their white belly. Most noticeably though, they have those distinctive, bright-yellow ear patches which slowly fade into a paler colour further down the penguin’s chest.

These penguins have a tough time caring for their young. During the bitter polar winters, females will lay a single egg and males will incubate this egg whilst the females go out in search of food for the youngster. Their diet consists predominantly of fish, crustaceans and molluscs but the proportions of this prey will vary between different areas.

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The breeding season is a gruelling but rewarding time for these penguins.

For me, the most captivating thing about these birds it their wonderfully unique adaptations – a testament to the unbelievable power of evolution. First of all, a structural adaptation is the shape of their body; it is perfectly streamlined to glide through the ocean with little resistance. Moreover, to cope with the freezing polar temperatures, they have evolved a thick layer of fat and dense feathers which help to reduce heat loss. However, their thick blubber impedes their movement on land – that’s partly why they waddle around like drunk teenagers. One of their most obvious adaptations is the way they huddle together to conserve their warmth and escape from the winds of winter. The emperor penguins take turns being on the perilous edge of this crowd so no one is left exposed to the elements for too long.

Yet another adaptation is the way they survive the immense ocean pressures when they go for deep dives, these dives can last for over 20 minutes and these penguins can plummet down to 1,850 feet deep (deeper than any other bird)! During these dives, the emperor penguin’s oxygen use is greatly reduced as their heart rate drops from 70 beats per minute at resting rate to 20 beats per minute. In addition to this, their non-essential organs are shut down, meaning oxygen can be focused on their vital organs, allowing for longer dives. I could go on about this bird’s magnificent adaptations but I would be here for quite a while because there are so many.

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When underwater, these birds are agile torpedoes.

Sadly, in 2012, the emperor penguin was uplisted from least concern to near-threatened by the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature). Their threats include habitat loss, industrial fisheries, disease, human disturbance (particularly unsustainable tourism) and most significantly, climate change. Global warming is melting the sea ice where they live. The current loss of their habitat is not sustainable and it is not slowing down. The protection and conservation of these penguins, and all other threatened species in fragile habitats, requires a global effort.

Tonight, at 8pm (UK time, GMT+0) the second episode of Dynasties airs where Sir David Attenborough will be narrating a no-doubt thrilling story about emperor penguins and the daily struggles they endure on the continent of Antarctica.

The Andean Condor

One of the world’s largest flying birds, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) can reach a wingspan of over 3 metres (around 10ft) and males can weigh up to 15kg! As the name suggests, these vultures are found throughout the Andes mountain range in South America where they feed on carrion. As scavengers, these birds have a vital ecological task by ensuring nutrients is recycled back into the food chain. Andean condors also have one of the longest lifespans of any bird, living up to 70 years in some cases.

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A male Andean condor with a large crest on its head.

These birds have an exceptionally unique appearance which varies between the different sexes. Their plumage is mostly black with a distinctive white collar around their neck; adult males have white patches on their wings and a dark reddish-black crest on the crown of their heads. As with nearly all vultures, their head and neck are bald which is an adaptation for hygiene, allowing the skin to be exposed to the sterilising effects of dehydration and ultraviolet light at high altitudes.

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A male condor in flight, displaying his bright, white wing feathers.

Their talons are long yet relatively blunt and weak, instead they are adapted to walking rather than catching prey. Instead, their main weapon is their sharply hooked bill which allows them to tear rotting meat. In order to locate their preferred carrion, they will use their fantastic sense of sight or by following other scavengers, such as turkey-vultures.

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A female Andean condor with a rather fancy white neck ruff.

The Andean condor is considered a near threatened species (their main threat is habitat loss) but their population currently seems to be stable – large populations can be found in national parks across western South America and quite a few captive breeding programs have been set up.