The Amazon River Dolphin

Today, the 14th of April, is World Dolphin Day. This is a day dedicated to the hugely intelligent and wonderfully inquisitive cetaceans that roam our oceans and rivers. Also known as the pink river dolphin, or boto, the Amazon river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) is a freshwater dolphin that inhabits the waterways of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers of South America.

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The largest river dolphin species in the world, these marine mammals can reach 2.5m in length and weigh over 180kg in males. They are often called pink river dolphins as the adults develop a pinkish tint, thought to be caused by repeated abrasion of the skin surface. Males tend to be pinker than females because they are involved in more intra-species conflict.

Strictly carnivorous, the Amazon river dolphin feeds on a plethora of aquatic animals; they are known to consume up to 53 species of fish – one of the widest ranging diets among all toothed cetaceans! Common menu items include catfish, piranhas, river turtles and freshwater crabs.

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The aim of World Dolphin Day is to ultimately raise awareness for these species and the threats they face. For pink river dolphins, their only threat is us. Fishermen see them as pests, and may hunt them to reduce the competition for fish. Moreover, these dolphins can easily get tangled up in fishing nets or suffer wounds colliding with boats. The petroleum industry is also a major threat – oil leaks cause irreparable damage to the fragile aquatic ecosystems in which these dolphins live.

Amazon river dolphins were once seen as magical creatures by traditional Amazonian people, believing they had special powers. For this reason, they were spared from mankind’s destructive hands. However, now we seem to have forgotten the phenomenal majesty of these dolphins, subsequently they are listed as endangered. Humans need to re-establish the humble connection we once had with our wildlife.

 

Sources:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_river_dolphin

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/a/amazon-river-dolphin/

http://wwf.panda.org/knowledge_hub/endangered_species/cetaceans/about/river_dolphins/pink_river_dolphin/

The Grey Crowned Crane

Named for its crown of stiff golden feathers, the grey crowned crane (Balearica regulorum) rules over the savannahs of Southern and Eastern Africa. They may also be found in wetter habitats such as marshes and around lakes. Although its plumage is mainly grey, it exhibits shades of white, gold, red and black. They reach around 1 metre in height and even wander around like royalty – with their entire body postured upright.

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African crowned cranes (which includes the closely related black crowned crane) are the only cranes that can grip branches, enabling them to roost up in trees. Grey crowned cranes have a spectacular breeding display. Jumping, dancing and bowing are just some of the tactics used to attract a mate. They also deploy a booming call by inflating their red gular sac (the bit of red skin beneath their chin). Once they have successfully mated and created their nest, grey crowned cranes will lay a clutch 2-5 eggs.

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A pair engaging in a courtship ritual.

Omnivorous, these birds have a varied diet. Examples include grasses, seeds, insects, frogs, snakes, worms and small fish. They have adopted an effective hunting mechanism, stamping their feet as they walk to flush out insects and other invertebrates. A similar strategy is used when they follow larger grazing herbivores such as antelopes and rhinos, except they don’t have to do any work. They simply follow these mammals and swiftly devour any small creatures turned up by the passing grazer. This is an example of commensalism. Commensalism is a form of symbiosis (a biological interaction between two organisms) in which one organisms benefits whilst the other is unaffected. In this case, the grey crowned crane benefits and the grazing mammal is unaffected.

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Sadly, these royal birds are endangered. Grey crowned cranes face a plethora of ongoing threats. Drainage of the natural wetlands in their habitat is leaving them with fewer places to nest. Overgrazing by livestock is limiting their availability of food. Pesticide pollution is interfering with the delicate ecological balance of Africa. Live capture and egg collection for commercial trade is also a detrimental threat to these cranes. However, organisations such as the International Crane Foundation are helping to conserve this species. By improving and enforcing harsher policies that strengthen the consequences of the illegal wildlife trade, they hope to reduce the atrocity of this trade. Moreover, they are encouraging methods to minimise the conflict between grey crowned cranes and traditional farmers.

One of the things I can do is to spread a wider awareness for the status of these cranes and the threats they face. As the national animal of Uganda, the grey crowned crane even appears on the country’s flag. They are unique in both appearance and behaviour and play a great ecological role. Their reign is not yet over.

 

Sources:

https://www.savingcranes.org/species-field-guide/grey-crowned-crane/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey_crowned_crane

http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/grey-crowned-crane-balearica-regulorum

Hennessy, K., Wiggins, V. (2014) Animal Encyclopedia: The Definitive Visual Guide. 2nd edn. London. Dorling Kindersley.

The Red Panda

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an arboreal, solitary mammal native to the high-altitude, temperate forests of the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China. The red panda’s unique appearance has caused some confusion among zoologists. Up until recently, some zoologists classified the red panda with the raccoons (Procyonidae), whilst others placed it in the bear family (Ursidae, a group which includes the giant panda). However, analysis of their evolutionary relationships showed that they differ so greatly from both the giant panda and raccoon that they warrant their own family, Ailuridae.

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These climbers have superb balance up in the trees.

The red panda is roughly the size of a domestic cat, but unlike carnivorous cats, these climbers feed mainly on bamboo. They are not fussy creatures though, as they may also feed on birds, eggs, insects, flowers, berries and small mammals when the opportunity presents itself. Red pandas are usually crepuscular, meaning they are most active at dawn and dusk, and live solitary lives, only coming together to mate. Common predators of the red panda include the snow leopard and martens, but if they feel threatened they will rapidly flee by climbing up the nearest tree. If they have no other option, they may even stand on their hind legs to make themselves appear larger and use their claws to desperately slash at their enemy.

Their striped, bushy tails have three main purposes: for balance up in the trees; for camouflage in their habitat of moss and lichen-covered vegetation; and for warmth, especially during the harsh Himalayan winters. Another fascinating adaptation of the red panda is their claws. They have strong, curved, semi-retractable claws which are designed to grasp and tear their main food source – bamboo.

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Red pandas will use their bushy tails for warmth.

With their adorable, patchy face and their fluffy, reddish-brown coat it is hard not to adore these little guys. But sadly, many do not show the worthy respect to the red panda. The red panda is endangered and the wild population is estimated at fewer than 10,000 individuals. Their main threat is habitat loss and fragmentation caused by widespread deforestation as agriculture and human population pressure constrict their native range. Another major threat for the red panda is poaching, especially in China where the population of red pandas has fallen by 40% in the past 50 years.

The Grévy’s Zebra

The largest wild species in the horse family (Equidae), the Grévy’s zebra (Equus grevyi) is a perissodactyl (odd-toed ungulate) found only in certain regions of Ethiopia and Kenya. They are one of three species of zebra, the other two being the Plain’s zebra (Equus quagga) and the Mountain zebra (Equus zebra). This herbivore lives in semi-arid grasslands where it grazes on many different types of grass which other species may not be able to.

Aside from their unique pattern of stripes, one of the most distinctive features of the Grévy’s zebra is their large, mickey-mouse-esque ears – much larger than the ears of their cousins. They also have long legs which allow them to reach 40mph when sprinting.

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A herd of zebras, also known as a zeal or dazzle.

Unlike the plains zebra, Grévy’s do not live in harems – a group of females controlled by a dominant male (called a stallion). Instead, they live in herds with loose social structures and lack a particular dominant male. These social groups may contain foals who, unlike their parents, have a brown and white striping which gradually darkens into a black and white coat as they grow. Grévy’s zebras have a relatively long gestation period of 13 months resulting in the birth of a single foal. Amazingly, newborn foals can stand after six minutes, walk after 20 minutes, and they can run after an hour. This adaptation means foals can join the herd and evade predators just after they have been born.

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Foals have a brown and white striping.

Grévy’s zebra once roamed a vast area of East Africa but have since become restricted to the horn of Africa. They are now considered endangered, with their wild population totalling no more than 2,500 individuals. In the past, their main threat was poaching for their striped skin but now their main threats seems to be habitat loss and competition with livestock, cattle in particular. Moreover, with their current population being so small and fragmented, this species may soon find it difficult to reproduce and expand the gene pool.

The Grévy’s zebra got its name in 1882 when the government in Abyssinia (the Ethiopian empire) sent one of these zebras to France. The president at the time was Jules Grévy and subsequently this new species was named in his honour. Although I would have personally preferred Mickey’s zebra.

The Pig-Nosed Turtle

As you can probably imagine from their name, the pig-nosed turtle (Carettochelys insculpta) is quite an unusual looking reptile. To some, they may appear a little disturbing, but I actually find them rather adorable. Their odd features are surprisingly phenomenal adaptations to their aquatic habitat, and should be admired rather than mocked.

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Adorable? Yes….no?

The pig-nosed turtle is a freshwater species of turtle native to the lakes, streams, lagoons and rivers of Northern Australia and New Guinea. They are the only extant species in the family Carettochelyidae, which makes them incredibly unique. These reptiles are omnivorous, consuming a varied diet of crustaceans, molluscs, insects, and plant and animal matter. These nocturnal reptiles can reach up to 60cm in length, quickly outgrowing aquariums and fish tanks.

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A new born grasping the art of swimming.

For me, the most fascinating aspect of the pig-nosed turtle is their countless number of specialised adaptations. Unusually for freshwater turtles, the pig-nosed turtle has forelimbs modified as flippers, resembling those of marine turtles. This adaptation helps them ‘fly’ through the water, earning them the less common name of ‘Fly River Turtle’. In addition, their protruding pig-like snout is adapted for breathing air while submerged.  Its grey or olive coloured carapace (shell) lacks the hard scutes (plates) of other turtles and tortoises, and is instead more leathery in texture. This gives the pig-nosed turtle a more streamlined shape. These are just a few of the pig-nosed turtle’s superb adaptations.

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Most people have not heard of the pig-nosed turtle and some may never know about them. The pig-nosed turtle was recently added to the IUCN Red List of endangered species and their population is on the decline. One of their biggest threats is the international pet trade – thousands, sometimes even tens of thousands, of pig-nosed turtles are taken from their natural habitat and shipped off around the world to end up in aquariums and fish tanks, resulting in a rapid decline of their native populations.. Furthermore, they are threatened by demand for their eggs. With an undeniably unique appearance and array of wonderful evolutionary adaptations, the pig-nosed turtle deserves to be protected.