The Tiger

Unbelievably powerful and expertly agile, the tiger (Panthera tigrisis the largest member of the cat family and the focus of tonight’s final episode of Dynasties. They occupy a vast but fragmented range from the dense jungles of Indonesia all the way up to the snowy expanses of Siberia – demonstrating their excellent adaptability in a plethora of different habitats and ecosystems. The largest individuals are found in Siberia, where the males can reach up to 300kg, yet still possess the power to jump as high as 10 metres – over five times the height of an average person.

Tiger

Tigers are magnificent hunters, consuming a diet of mainly hoofed animals such as Sambar deer, wild boar and water buffalo, although this diet will vary considerably depending on their habitat. The most striking feature of the tiger is their fiery orange coat marked with charcoal-black stripes. This beautiful fur pattern provides superb camouflage in the autumnal-toned vegetation. Their tail, which is also striped, helps tigers maintain balance when chasing after prey or climbing rocky tracts.

The tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea and Vietnam, but these mammals are not being given the respect they deserve. Fewer than 4,000 tigers remain in the wild, spread out over six subspecies, with the South China tiger being most at threat (most likely extinct in the wild). Nine subspecies of tiger used to roam our planet, but within the past century, the Javan, Caspian and Bali tiger have all become extinct – forever gone because of human’s actions.

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Tigers occupy a range of habitats from swamps to forests to snowy plains.

It is estimated that wild tiger numbers have dropped by an abhorrent 95% since the beginning of the 20th century and now all six extant subspecies are considered either endangered (the Bengal, Siberian and Indo-Chinese tigers) or critically endangered (the Malayan, South China and Sumatran tigers). The cause of their suffering is due to human conflict; habitat loss and fragmentation; and poaching. Unfortunately, tigers live in some of the most densely populated places on earth so conflict with humans is almost inevitable in our ever-increasing crowded world. Tiger parts are also used in the fruitless and detrimental practice of traditional Chinese medicine.

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A mother and her cubs enjoying a leisurely swim.

Thankfully, conservation organisations such as the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) are working closely with governments to resolve human-tiger conflicts and establish larger national parks where these tigers can hopefully live in relative peace – tigers are extremely territorial are require up to 450 kilometres squared each, so large habitats are essential. However, tigers are far from safe and their conflict with humans will only worsen unless drastic action is immediately taken. These majestic cats play such a vital ecological and cultural role in Asia that their extinction would be shamefully inexcusable.

The Painted Wolf

Also commonly known as the African wild dog, the painted wolf (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered canid native to savanna and arid habitats of sub-Saharan Africa. Although these carnivores have a range of different names, my personal favourite is the ‘painted wolf’ because it summarises their appearance perfectly. They have a wonderful, patchy coat expressing gold, black. white, brown and cream tones – like splatters of paint on a canvas. This unique pattern makes the painted wolf an unmistakable carnivore.

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Painted wolves are exceptionally social creatures, living in highly organised packs containing anywhere between 6 and 40 individuals. These packs are usually led by a monogamous breeding pair (a king and queen) which will have a litter of six to sixteen pups (the average being 10), who are cooperatively reared and cared for by the entire pack. The social life of painted wolves is admirable; they will support sick and injured-relatives by sharing their food and their love.

This carnivore is a specialised pack hunter of medium-sized antelopes and although they may not possess the speed of the cheetah, they certainly have more stamina, being able to pursue their prey at 66 km/h over 3-5 kilometres. They are diurnal predators (they hunt during daylight) and have a hugely varied diet including impala, wildebeest, waterbuck, Thomson’s gazelle, kob, reedbuck, lechwe, duiker, oribi and zebra – just to name a few. However, this diet will vary from location to location. They will usually target sick, frail or injured individuals and collaboratively take them down by cutting off escape routes and eventually isolating their meal. Their hunting strategy is one of the most effective in the world, with a hunting success rate of up to 90% in certain areas – a colossal statistic when compared with the leopard’s 30-40% success rate and the lion’s 25-30% success rate. This earns the painted wolves the respected crown for being one of the best hunters in the world.

Painted Wolf

Aside from its phenomenal endurance, painted wolves have a range other adaptations suited for survival. One of the most obvious is their blotchy coat which blends in perfectly with their golden savanna habitat. They also have huge, satellite dish ears and highly evolved noses which gives them a superb sense of hearing and smell. However, arguably their most fascinating adaptation is their ability to learn. These dogs need to know how to effectively hunt certain animals and the best tactics to survive under the harsh rule of mother nature. These necessary skills can be passed down through generations because they are quick, intelligent learners.

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A couple of painted wolf pups.

This species once roamed throughout sub-Saharan Africa but now can only be found in small fragmented locations. In 2016, they were listed as endangered by the IUCN, with an estimated total population of 6,600 individuals. Their ongoing threats include habitat loss and fragmentation, disease and human conflict. Painted wolves are one of my favourite animals – I am fascinated by their intelligence, their complex societies, their stunning coat and their expert hunting ability. With so few left, their conservation is vitally important. I am excited to witness the story of a pack of painted wolves in the upcoming episode of Dynasties – airing at 8pm tonight (GMT+0). I am sure the Dynasties team will perfectly capture the wonder and beauty of these animals.