The Tiger

Unbelievably powerful and expertly agile, the tiger (Panthera tigrisis the largest member of the cat family and the focus of tonight’s final episode of Dynasties. They occupy a vast but fragmented range from the dense jungles of Indonesia all the way up to the snowy expanses of Siberia – demonstrating their excellent adaptability in a plethora of different habitats and ecosystems. The largest individuals are found in Siberia, where the males can reach up to 300kg, yet still possess the power to jump as high as 10 metres – over five times the height of an average person.

Tiger

Tigers are magnificent hunters, consuming a diet of mainly hoofed animals such as Sambar deer, wild boar and water buffalo, although this diet will vary considerably depending on their habitat. The most striking feature of the tiger is their fiery orange coat marked with charcoal-black stripes. This beautiful fur pattern provides superb camouflage in the autumnal-toned vegetation. Their tail, which is also striped, helps tigers maintain balance when chasing after prey or climbing rocky tracts.

The tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea and Vietnam, but these mammals are not being given the respect they deserve. Fewer than 4,000 tigers remain in the wild, spread out over six subspecies, with the South China tiger being most at threat (most likely extinct in the wild). Nine subspecies of tiger used to roam our planet, but within the past century, the Javan, Caspian and Bali tiger have all become extinct – forever gone because of human’s actions.

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Tigers occupy a range of habitats from swamps to forests to snowy plains.

It is estimated that wild tiger numbers have dropped by an abhorrent 95% since the beginning of the 20th century and now all six extant subspecies are considered either endangered (the Bengal, Siberian and Indo-Chinese tigers) or critically endangered (the Malayan, South China and Sumatran tigers). The cause of their suffering is due to human conflict; habitat loss and fragmentation; and poaching. Unfortunately, tigers live in some of the most densely populated places on earth so conflict with humans is almost inevitable in our ever-increasing crowded world. Tiger parts are also used in the fruitless and detrimental practice of traditional Chinese medicine.

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A mother and her cubs enjoying a leisurely swim.

Thankfully, conservation organisations such as the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) are working closely with governments to resolve human-tiger conflicts and establish larger national parks where these tigers can hopefully live in relative peace – tigers are extremely territorial are require up to 450 kilometres squared each, so large habitats are essential. However, tigers are far from safe and their conflict with humans will only worsen unless drastic action is immediately taken. These majestic cats play such a vital ecological and cultural role in Asia that their extinction would be shamefully inexcusable.

The Painted Wolf

Also commonly known as the African wild dog, the painted wolf (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered canid native to savanna and arid habitats of sub-Saharan Africa. Although these carnivores have a range of different names, my personal favourite is the ‘painted wolf’ because it summarises their appearance perfectly. They have a wonderful, patchy coat expressing gold, black. white, brown and cream tones – like splatters of paint on a canvas. This unique pattern makes the painted wolf an unmistakable carnivore.

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Painted wolves are exceptionally social creatures, living in highly organised packs containing anywhere between 6 and 40 individuals. These packs are usually led by a monogamous breeding pair (a king and queen) which will have a litter of six to sixteen pups (the average being 10), who are cooperatively reared and cared for by the entire pack. The social life of painted wolves is admirable; they will support sick and injured-relatives by sharing their food and their love.

This carnivore is a specialised pack hunter of medium-sized antelopes and although they may not possess the speed of the cheetah, they certainly have more stamina, being able to pursue their prey at 66 km/h over 3-5 kilometres. They are diurnal predators (they hunt during daylight) and have a hugely varied diet including impala, wildebeest, waterbuck, Thomson’s gazelle, kob, reedbuck, lechwe, duiker, oribi and zebra – just to name a few. However, this diet will vary from location to location. They will usually target sick, frail or injured individuals and collaboratively take them down by cutting off escape routes and eventually isolating their meal. Their hunting strategy is one of the most effective in the world, with a hunting success rate of up to 90% in certain areas – a colossal statistic when compared with the leopard’s 30-40% success rate and the lion’s 25-30% success rate. This earns the painted wolves the respected crown for being one of the best hunters in the world.

Painted Wolf

Aside from its phenomenal endurance, painted wolves have a range other adaptations suited for survival. One of the most obvious is their blotchy coat which blends in perfectly with their golden savanna habitat. They also have huge, satellite dish ears and highly evolved noses which gives them a superb sense of hearing and smell. However, arguably their most fascinating adaptation is their ability to learn. These dogs need to know how to effectively hunt certain animals and the best tactics to survive under the harsh rule of mother nature. These necessary skills can be passed down through generations because they are quick, intelligent learners.

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A couple of painted wolf pups.

This species once roamed throughout sub-Saharan Africa but now can only be found in small fragmented locations. In 2016, they were listed as endangered by the IUCN, with an estimated total population of 6,600 individuals. Their ongoing threats include habitat loss and fragmentation, disease and human conflict. Painted wolves are one of my favourite animals – I am fascinated by their intelligence, their complex societies, their stunning coat and their expert hunting ability. With so few left, their conservation is vitally important. I am excited to witness the story of a pack of painted wolves in the upcoming episode of Dynasties – airing at 8pm tonight (GMT+0). I am sure the Dynasties team will perfectly capture the wonder and beauty of these animals.

The Lion

With the recent release of the live-action Lion King movie trailer and the next episode of Dynasties focusing on a pride of lions airing later tonight, I thought this fascinating feline would be a perfect species to talk about today. The lion (Panthera leo) is Africa’s apex predator and the only cat that lives in groups, known as prides. A lion pride usually consists of a few males, related females and cubs although as the males grow up, they will leave the pride and establish their own family elsewhere.

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Lion prides are exceptionally loving and intimate; they try to keep their bonds strong.

Once upon a time, lions roamed across a vast portion of the Old World; from Greece to India. However, lions have since been eradicated from Europe and only a small population of Asiatic lions remains in the Gir Forest National Park in Gujarat, western India. African lions, which once roamed throughout the continent, are now only found in certain hotspots dotted across sub-Saharan Africa. They are mainly found in grassy plains and savannas, especially areas with large trees, such as acacia trees, that provide a nice bit of shade to keep the lions cool.

Lions are sexually dimorphic – this means that males and females exhibit different characteristics, aside from their genitalia. The main difference in lions is that males develop a thick mane as they grow up whereas females do not. Both sexes display a remarkable, golden coat and a muscular build, sometimes faint spots may be seen on their legs and underparts which they acquired when they were a cub.

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A lion cub displaying their faint spots adapted for camouflage.

Males usually take on the role of defending the pride’s territory whilst females do most of the hunting. Groups of females will often work together to bring down large prey – usually ungulates (hoofed mammals) such as plains zebra, blue wildebeest, Cape buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, gemsbok and even giraffes. After a group hunt, the pride will squabble over the kill, with those at the top of the social order getting first pick whilst those at the bottom of the pecking order (cubs) will have to sit and wait their turn.

Although lions are an apex predator, that doesn’t mean they will pass on a free meal. As opportunists, they will occasionally steal kills from hyenas or wild dogs. Lions and spotted hyenas occupy a very similar ecological niche, and that results in a lot of competition between these two species. These two carnivores will often fight each other for meals and territory, causing some nasty injuries. If you watch Episode 3 of Dynasties at 8pm later tonight (GMT+0), you will see how the competition between these two fierce species can lead to some rather gruesome scenes.

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An image of pure majesty.

Life as a lion is not easy. But on top of all their natural threats, they also suffer at the hands of us humans. Habitat loss and conflict with local people are their major threats and they are thus listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Lions are such adaptable hunters that they will seek out livestock in local villages, and the locals often respond with violence. Lions play such a crucial role in our global culture – in sculptures, in films, in paintings, in literature, in sport and in national flags. They are the quintessential image of bravery, resilience and collaboration. Therefore, lions must be protected and appreciated because they are truly wonderful creatures.

The Common Chimpanzee

With the first episode of Sir David Attenborough’s new series, Dynasties, airing this evening, I thought it would be appropriate to write about the focus of today’s episode – the chimpanzee. The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a great ape found in dry and moist forests and savanna woodlands across West and Central Africa. As many of you will know, chimpanzees are our closest living relatives, sharing more than 98% of our DNA. It is utterly fascinating to me that we are so similar to chimps. However, it is also utterly terrifying that we have let such an incredible species become endangered – habitat loss, poaching and disease are constantly pressuring the chimpanzee population.

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A chimp wisely pondering in the canopy.

It is depressingly unfathomable to me that we are slowly killing this species – our own common ancestor. Chimpanzees are highly intelligent creatures meaning they experience pain. They experience suffering. To think that we are letting one of the most intelligent animals on earth (a species which is even capable of learning human sign language) gradually go extinct is horrifying.

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A mother playing with her child.

Homo sapiens and chimpanzees share the family Hominidae, along with the bonobo, two species of gorilla and three species of orangutan. Chimpanzees are slightly larger than their cousin the bonobo, weighing up to around 65kg. In the wild, they live to around 35-40 years old (depending on their location and other factors) and can live even longer in captivity. They are covered in course black hair, with bare patches on their face, hands and feet.

Chimpanzees are social animals. They live in troops which can contain over 100 individuals, but usually their groups include between 20 and 50 members. These societies have strict, hierarchies, with a dominant male nearly always at the top.  These primates are terrestrial and arboreal, walking on all-fours when on the ground and using their long arms to swing from tree to tree when in the canopy. Amazingly, chimps are one of the few species that uses tools regularly. For instance, they may use rocks to smash open nuts or use sticks to scoop delicious honey out of bee hives!

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A chimpanzee troop enjoying a Sunday dinner.

The common chimpanzee, like us, is omnivorous, consuming a varied diet of fruit, plants, seeds, insects, eggs and meat. They will hunt small-to-medium sized mammals, including other primates using a highly complex and ingenious hunting method. During a hunt, each chimp is assigned a role: ‘Drivers’ (these initiate the hunt and drive their prey forward), ‘Blockers’ (these are positioned below the canopy and race up the trees to block off any strays), ‘Ambushers’ (these hide and ambush prey if they come too close) and ‘Chasers’ (these rapidly move in to make the final catch).

As you can see, chimpanzees are truly magnificent animals and we should be proud that we share a lineage with such spectacular creatures. But as I mentioned, the common chimpanzee is considered endangered by the IUCN, and their population is estimated to be less than 300,000 individuals – an insignificant number when compared to the current human population of 7.7 billion (an estimate made in November 2018 by United Nations). Their population trend is not looking good so we must act before it is too late.

If you’re interested to find out more about the complexly fascinating lives of chimpanzees, make sure you check out Dynasties this evening at 8:30 pm (UK time – GMT+0) on BBC one.

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Sir David Attenborough’s new BBC documentary.

The Leopard

This adaptable, wonderfully camouflaged big cat has a large distribution – found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. The leopard (Panthera pardus) is the most widespread of the five species in the genus Panthera. Despite their wide range, they are vulnerable, particularly in parts of Asia, and their population is on the decline mainly due to habitat loss and fragmentation.

Leopard

Leopards have a distinctive and beautiful golden coat, covered with black spots and rosettes (rose-shaped spots). This spot pattern is unique to each individual, allowing different leopards to be identified. Leopards are often confused with jaguars since they share this black pattern of spots, however, jaguars usually have rosettes with spots within them whilst leopards do not. Melanism is a recessive trait found in some leopards which can result in melanistic leopards, more commonly known as black panthers. These individuals appear to be almost completely black and their black spots are often hidden by the charcoal coat.

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A melanistic leopard, also known as a black panther.

These predators are usually nocturnal hunters and they will stalk their prey in the tall grass before pouncing. Their carnivorous diet mainly consists of antelope but they will usually take whatever they can get because they are opportunistic hunters. After making a kill, leopards will often use their muscular build to haul their meal up into a tree – protected from scavengers such as hyenas or other leopards.

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A female leopard and her cub.

The leopard is split into many subspecies, many of which are critically endangered. There estimated to be fewer than 250 Javan leopards left in the wild, whilst the Amur leopard population has around 60 individuals and the Arabian leopard even fewer than that. Their former range has dramatically dwindled in the last century and leopards are struggling to cope with this change. Leopards are undeniably stunning creatures with their own unique personalities and behaviours. They play a key role in African and Asian ecosystems and therefore their conservation is vital.

The Giant Anteater

Native to Central and South America, the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is the largest species of anteater, with a tail almost as long as its body. This terrestrial mammal is an insectivore – their diet mainly consists of ants and termites. They use their huge, sharp claws and their long, sticky tongue to dig up and catch up to 30,000 insects a day. They are found in various habitats including grassland and rainforest.

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A giant anteater scouring the plains for insects.

Giant anteaters are easily distinguished from other anteater species by their large, bushy tail, long claws and unique fur pattern displaying shades of white, black and grey. They are usually solitary creatures but at some point they will find a mate and stay with them for a few days to ultimately birth a single pup. Adorably, sometimes the baby will ride on their mother’s back.

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A tireless mother and her tired pup.

Sadly, the giant anteater is considered vulnerable by the IUCN and their species is threatened by habitat loss, wildfires and poaching for bushmeat. Populations in Central America are most at risk, so much so that they have nearly disappeared from that part of the world. This mammal is a well-loved and exceptionally unique species which has a great cultural significance so deserves our protection.

The Sperm Whale

The largest living toothed animal, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is found worldwide and can reach lengths up to 20 metres, although most average at around 15 metres. They are also the largest living predator and hold the award for the biggest brain of any animal! If that wasn’t enough, they are also the second deepest diving mammal after the Cuvier’s beaked whale. The sperm whale is certainly a fascinating and unique creature.

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A mother with her calf, teaching them how to survive in this blue abyss.

Sperm whales are easily recognisable with their huge square head and comparatively small lower jaw. Their name comes from an organ in their heads which is filled with a waxy substance called spermaceti oil but there is some uncertainty regarding the function of this fluid. Many biologists believe it is used to alter the whale’s buoyancy because the oil hardens when cold, allowing the whale to adjust its underwater altitude. Just before a deep dive, they will display their large, triangular tail flukes in order to propel themselves downwards. During these lengthy dives, they must hold their breath for approximately 90 minutes.

As the world’s largest predator, their diet mainly consists of medium-to-large sized squid found deep in the ocean. These whales use echolocation to target their prey and also for communication with other sperm whales. It is thought that these whales may occasionally collaborate during hunting. Sperm whales are highly social creatures, living in pods with around 20 individuals including females and their young whilst male sperm whales usually live solitary lives.

Sperm Whale

Sadly, these highly intelligent and majestic creatures are considered vulnerable by the IUCN, primarily due to mass sperm whaling between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries which led to the slaughter of hundreds of thousands of sperm whales. Thankfully, the demand for commercial whaling has drastically fallen and sperm whales are protected across the globe. We still have so much more to learn about these magnificent mammals.