Unsurprisingly, the blue-spotted ribbontail ray (Taeniura lymma) is well-known for its array of electric blue spots splashed upon its murky yellow skin. These rays are found in the tropical Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean, specifically in sandy patches of coral reefs. Here, they prowl over the sandy floor, using their mouth to extract molluscs, crabs, shrimps and worms hidden beneath the surface of the sand. Although they have a barbed tail, it is only used in self-defence. If disturbed, they will usually just briskly swim away, flapping their two wing-like pectoral fins.
Also known more simply as the blue-spotted ray, this fish uses its unique colouration as camouflage. From our perspective, these blue spots may seem like a flawed disguise but the potential of this adaptation can only be appreciated below the sea surface. The blue spots break up the ray’s outline when seen from above in the shifting sunlight of a shallow coral reef. This helps them to hide from possible predators – including hammerhead sharks and bottlenose dolphins.
The blue-spotted ribbontail ray has a tail armed with one or two sharp, barbed spines that can cause rather painful injuries. If attacked or stepped on, they may use this tail to inject venom into their attacker or repeatedly whip them, resulting in physical wounds. Although stingrays are notorious for the painful wounds they can inflict with their barbed tails, they rarely attack people. They will only launch an attack in desperate situations. Amazingly, the blue-spotted ray’s stinging barbs can be regrown if broken off.
Currently, this impressive species is considered ‘Near-Threatened’ by the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature). Their main threats are over-fishing and habitat degradation. In addition, they are popular among private aquarists due to their peculiar patterning, but this is endangering their wild population. Like most marine and aquatic species, the blue-spotted ray is poorly suited to a life in captivity since their wild habitat cannot be easily replicated.
The main priorities right now should be implementing fishing quotas and specific net sizes to minimise the amount of rays caught by mistake, as well as conserving coral reefs. Coral reefs are one of the world’s most fragile and vulnerable ecosystems and yet are home to 25% of all marine life. If these ocean metropolises are not preserved, thousands of species like the blue-spotted ribbontail ray will face extinction.
Hennessy, K., Wiggins, V. (2014) Animal Encyclopedia: The Definitive Visual Guide. 2nd edn. London. Dorling Kindersley.