The Mandrill

The largest of all monkeys, the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a vividly unique primate. The males have an unmistakable appearance – easily identifiable by the sky-blue and scarlet-red skin on their face, as well as an ombre of galaxy fading into crimson on their rump. This spectacular colouration makes the mandrill one of the most colourful of all mammals. Controlled by hormones, these colours grow brighter and starker when an individual gets excited. But these monkeys possess far more wonders than just their vivid skin.

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A dominant male mandrill foraging on the forest floor.

Found mainly in tropical rainforests across Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Congo, the mandrill is an extremely social animal. They live in troops (occasionally called ‘hordes’) usually consisting of a dominant male, several females, a group of youngsters, and various non-breeding, lower-ranking males. These hordes can be colossal; sometimes several groups merge to form troops of 200 or more. However, mandrill society is not a tranquil utopia full of fun and games. It has a strict hierarchy. Mandrills have long canine teeth used principally for fighting and in display. Dominant males advertise their dominance with their intense colouration, and a temperament to match. Conflict can be deadly.

Generally, males weigh around 30kg whereas females usually weigh less than half of that, with an average weight of 12kg. Mandrills are one of the most sexually dimorphic animals, meaning the two sexes exhibit different characteristics. Whilst the males have this bulky and vivid image, the females have a far less obnoxious appearance. The female’s colouration is darker, but that does not mean they lack character; female mandrills have the vital role of raising the next generation.

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A female (left) grooming a male (right).

Primarily terrestrial primates, mandrills forage on the ground for fruits, roots, insects, reptiles and amphibians. Although, they have been known to consume the young of other species of monkey, and even small antelope when desperately hungry. Mandrills have short, but fully opposable thumbs – like those of the great apes – for grasping food and manipulating objects. They also have powerful jaw muscles, allowing them to crush tough plant foods.

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Sadly, the mandrill is considered vulnerable by the ICUN. They are often hunted for bushmeat, and many African cultures consider them a delicacy. In some areas, they are considered a pest because they will destroy crops of local villages, and are subsequently killed. Deforestation, urbanisation and the growth of agriculture are also rapidly constricting their natural habitat. Thankfully, conservation and re-introduction schemes are helping to conserve the mandrill population. Charles Darwin once said “no other member in the whole class of mammals is coloured in so extraordinary a manner as the adult male mandrill’s”. Such an impressive mammal deserves protection.

 

Sources:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/m/mandrill/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandrill

https://www.monkeyworlds.com/mandrill/

Hennessy, K., Wiggins, V. (2014) Animal Encyclopedia: The Definitive Visual Guide. 2nd edn. London. Dorling Kindersley.

The Common Octopus

With their extraordinary camouflage techniques and ingenious defences, the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is one of the most intelligent of all the invertebrates. This species is a mollusc belonging to the class Cephalopoda, and is widespread in tropical and warm temperate oceanic waters. Their vast distribution is a testament to the octopus’ ability to continuously adapt.

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The common octopus has a unique and unmistakable appearance. They have eight grasping arms, or tentacles, which are also used for crawling along the sea floor. Each tentacle can be up to 1 metre in length and is lined with two series of cup-like ‘suckers’. These give the octopus a superb grip, acting like studs on the bottom of football boots. The suckers also have receptors that enable the octopus to taste what is touching (as I said, this animal is incredibly unique). Their huge, bulbous head is actually a fleshy mantle enclosing a cavity that contains vital organs, including gills for breathing. Another magnificent feature of the common octopus is their eyesight. This mollusc has two prominent eyes with a horizontal, slit-shaped pupil which give them surprisingly excellent vision.

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Their ‘suckers’ make them excellent climbers.

This octopus is a predator of crustaceans, among other prey, and has a secret weapon hiding in its underside – a beak. Its jaws are a parrot-like peak, which is strong enough to penetrate the carapace (shell) of a crab or lobster. This beak can deliver a nasty bite and hides a venomous saliva used for subduing prey. They may also release a cloud of black ink to disorientate their meal before attacking. This ink is released from a funnel just behind its head and is mainly used as a defence mechanism. When faced with an enemy, they will release this ink (which contains chemicals that dull their attacker’s sense of smell) and swiftly flee from the scene. This funnel has two other main uses: to expel water after gills have extracted oxygen and to rapidly discharge water as jet propulsion for a quick getaway. There is no denying that this animal is exceptionally creative in its methods of predation and defence.

But their brilliance does not end there. For one, they can squeeze through minuscule cracks and crevices – any hole that’s not smaller than their beak. Furthermore, the common octopus can change colour in an instant. Their skin contains special cells called chromatophores. These contain pigment which can change the octopus’ colour and even texture, allowing them to blend in with their surroundings or to signal its mood if angry or afraid. Their camouflage is one of the best in the animal kingdom; predators such as sharks, eels, and dolphins swim by without even noticing them. I’m starting to question if there’s anything this animal can’t do.

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The common octopus can blend into almost any environment.

In spite of its remarkable adaptations, the common octopus is short-lived, with a lifespan of 1 to 2 years in the wild. It takes little more than a year to mature and spawn their own offspring, Both mother and father die soon after mating as their time is completely focused on caring for and brooding their eggs. Upon hatching, an infant octopus enters the big, blue world with half a million of its siblings – ready to repeat this cycle all over again. The common octopus is the first invertebrate of my blog, and deservedly so. Their exceptional array of unbelievable characteristics and adaptations make them a true wonder of wildlife.

 

Sources:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/c/common-octopus/

http://www.thecephalopodpage.org/MarineInvertebrateZoology/Octopusvulgaris.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_octopus

Hennessy, K., Wiggins, V. (2014) Animal Encyclopedia: The Definitive Visual Guide. 2nd edn. London. Dorling Kindersley.

The Nile Crocodile

The largest freshwater predator in Africa, the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is a formidable hunter with a great historical significance. They are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa, where they feed mainly on fish – like their Indian relative, the Gharial. However, these reptiles are opportunists so will attack almost anything unfortunate enough to cross its path, including zebras, wildebeest, small hippos, warthogs, bushpigs, porcupines, birds, and even other crocodiles. Once they have made a kill, they will rip off and swallow chunks of flesh, using the classic “death roll” to tear off particularly stubborn bits of meat.

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The Nile crocodile is possibly the second largest extant reptile in the world, after the huge saltwater crocodile. They can reach up to 6 metres in length, and weigh over 1000 kilograms in extremely rare cases. Though normally, adults don’t exceed 5 metres, and weigh around 500 kilograms. These crocs are quite sociable animals; sharing their basking spots and food with others. Their hierarchy is strict and determined solely by size and strength.

In the Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya, Nile crocodiles enjoy an annual feast. This reserve is famous for the annual migration of zebra, Thomson’s gazelle, and wildebeest to and from the Serengeti every year, known as the Great Migration. During this migration, these mammals must cross the Mara river – a river that is home to hundreds of hungry crocodiles. As huge herds of desperate wildebeest and zebra charge through the river, the crocodiles relish in the free buffet. These crocodiles have adapted, ingeniously, to exploit the delicious meals on offer.

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A Nile crocodile hunting a wildebeest in the Mara river.

Not only are Nile crocodiles superb predators, they also have an incredible past. Modern crocodiles have been around for about 80 million years, and the fact that they are still here today is a testament to their wonderful ability to adapt. In Ancient Egypt, the Nile crocodile was seen as the biggest and most dangerous predator; feared by many. However, the Egyptian people also had some admiration for these creatures – the Egyptian deity Sobek was based upon the crocodile. Mummified crocodiles and crocodile eggs have even been found in Egyptian tombs!

These reptiles were hunted close to extinction in the mid-1900s, but local and international conservation measures have helped populations to recover in most areas. Thankfully, their status is looking secure. The Nile crocodile has an undeserved reputation of being a vicious and ruthless man-eater, however incidents between people and crocodiles are rare. It is estimated that 200 people are killed each year by the Nile crocodile, a minuscule number when compared to the 1.25 million people who die in road crashes every year.

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Nile crocodiles are opportunists – they don’t actively hunt humans but will take an easy meal if presented with one. Crocodiles have been around far longer than we have. We should show them the respect they deserve.

 

Sources:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/n/nile-crocodile/

http://www.krugerpark.co.za/africa_crocodiles.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nile_crocodile#Hunting_and_diet

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sobek

The Red Panda

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an arboreal, solitary mammal native to the high-altitude, temperate forests of the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China. The red panda’s unique appearance has caused some confusion among zoologists. Up until recently, some zoologists classified the red panda with the raccoons (Procyonidae), whilst others placed it in the bear family (Ursidae, a group which includes the giant panda). However, analysis of their evolutionary relationships showed that they differ so greatly from both the giant panda and raccoon that they warrant their own family, Ailuridae.

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These climbers have superb balance up in the trees.

The red panda is roughly the size of a domestic cat, but unlike carnivorous cats, these climbers feed mainly on bamboo. They are not fussy creatures though, as they may also feed on birds, eggs, insects, flowers, berries and small mammals when the opportunity presents itself. Red pandas are usually crepuscular, meaning they are most active at dawn and dusk, and live solitary lives, only coming together to mate. Common predators of the red panda include the snow leopard and martens, but if they feel threatened they will rapidly flee by climbing up the nearest tree. If they have no other option, they may even stand on their hind legs to make themselves appear larger and use their claws to desperately slash at their enemy.

Their striped, bushy tails have three main purposes: for balance up in the trees; for camouflage in their habitat of moss and lichen-covered vegetation; and for warmth, especially during the harsh Himalayan winters. Another fascinating adaptation of the red panda is their claws. They have strong, curved, semi-retractable claws which are designed to grasp and tear their main food source – bamboo.

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Red pandas will use their bushy tails for warmth.

With their adorable, patchy face and their fluffy, reddish-brown coat it is hard not to adore these little guys. But sadly, many do not show the worthy respect to the red panda. The red panda is endangered and the wild population is estimated at fewer than 10,000 individuals. Their main threat is habitat loss and fragmentation caused by widespread deforestation as agriculture and human population pressure constrict their native range. Another major threat for the red panda is poaching, especially in China where the population of red pandas has fallen by 40% in the past 50 years.