The Grévy’s Zebra

The largest wild species in the horse family (Equidae), the Grévy’s zebra (Equus grevyi) is a perissodactyl (odd-toed ungulate) found only in certain regions of Ethiopia and Kenya. They are one of three species of zebra, the other two being the Plain’s zebra (Equus quagga) and the Mountain zebra (Equus zebra). This herbivore lives in semi-arid grasslands where it grazes on many different types of grass which other species may not be able to.

Aside from their unique pattern of stripes, one of the most distinctive features of the Grévy’s zebra is their large, mickey-mouse-esque ears – much larger than the ears of their cousins. They also have long legs which allow them to reach 40mph when sprinting.

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A herd of zebras, also known as a zeal or dazzle.

Unlike the plains zebra, Grévy’s do not live in harems – a group of females controlled by a dominant male (called a stallion). Instead, they live in herds with loose social structures and lack a particular dominant male. These social groups may contain foals who, unlike their parents, have a brown and white striping which gradually darkens into a black and white coat as they grow. Grévy’s zebras have a relatively long gestation period of 13 months resulting in the birth of a single foal. Amazingly, newborn foals can stand after six minutes, walk after 20 minutes, and they can run after an hour. This adaptation means foals can join the herd and evade predators just after they have been born.

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Foals have a brown and white striping.

Grévy’s zebra once roamed a vast area of East Africa but have since become restricted to the horn of Africa. They are now considered endangered, with their wild population totalling no more than 2,500 individuals. In the past, their main threat was poaching for their striped skin but now their main threats seems to be habitat loss and competition with livestock, cattle in particular. Moreover, with their current population being so small and fragmented, this species may soon find it difficult to reproduce and expand the gene pool.

The Grévy’s zebra got its name in 1882 when the government in Abyssinia (the Ethiopian empire) sent one of these zebras to France. The president at the time was Jules Grévy and subsequently this new species was named in his honour. Although I would have personally preferred Mickey’s zebra.

The Wild Turkey

With Christmas just around the corner, I thought it would be nice to pay some appreciation to the quintessential Christmas meat – the turkey. The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is a fascinating, ground-dwelling bird native to North America, and carries a huge historical significance. Their name originates from Britain, whereby domesticated turkeys were being imported to Britain in ships arriving from a region in and around the country of Turkey.

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An adult male turkey displaying his magnificent plumage.

Wild turkeys are omnivorous birds that typically feed on forest floors, consuming a varied diet of nuts, seeds, insects, fruits and salamanders. They prefer hardwood forests with scattered openings such as marshes, swamps, grasslands, fields and orchards.

Prior to America’s colonisation, the Native Americans regularly hunted wild turkeys for their undoubtedly delicious meat. When Europeans arrived, they quickly domesticated the birds and wild turkeys were unsustainably hunted, causing their numbers to plummet during the 19th and 20th century, and their status became increasingly insecure. Thankfully, in the 1940s, reintroduction programmes began which established new populations in recovering forests and woodlands across North America.

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An adult male (left) and female (right) competing in a staring contest.

Male and female turkeys are dissimilar in appearance, exhibiting a range of different characteristics (this is known as sexual dimorphism). Adult males, also called toms or gobblers, are much larger than females, known as hens, and have a thick, glossy black plumage, sometimes showing areas of purple, red, copper and bronze. They also have a white-tipped tail which becomes fanned out when displaying to a potential partner. However, most noticeably, males have an intense bald, reddish head with red wattles drooping down from their throat and neck. Additionally, they flaunt a long, red fleshy flap over their beak – called a snood. In contrast, female turkeys have a duller plumage of brown and grey tones and lack many of the distinctive characteristics of the males.

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A lone female turkey.

Males can weigh up to 10kg, whereas females seldom exceed 5kg. Despite their relatively large weight, wild turkeys are agile, fast flyers and can comfortably traverse through the obstacles in their woodland habitat. Wild turkeys share their habitat with a plethora of predators including coyotes, gray wolves, cougars, bobcats, Canadian lynx, black bears and eagles – but these seemingly slow-witted birds are not completely defenceless. Adult turkeys, especially males, can be quite aggressive to potential threats; they may kick, bite or even ram in order to deter predators. Surprisingly, wild turkeys can run 40 kilometres per hour in short bursts – nearly as fast as Usain Bolt’s maximum sprinting speed.

I hope this post allowed you to learn a bit more about the turkey, and gave you a greater appreciation for their lifestyle, unique characteristics and abilities. Happy Holidays!

The Pig-Nosed Turtle

As you can probably imagine from their name, the pig-nosed turtle (Carettochelys insculpta) is quite an unusual looking reptile. To some, they may appear a little disturbing, but I actually find them rather adorable. Their odd features are surprisingly phenomenal adaptations to their aquatic habitat, and should be admired rather than mocked.

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Adorable? Yes….no?

The pig-nosed turtle is a freshwater species of turtle native to the lakes, streams, lagoons and rivers of Northern Australia and New Guinea. They are the only extant species in the family Carettochelyidae, which makes them incredibly unique. These reptiles are omnivorous, consuming a varied diet of crustaceans, molluscs, insects, and plant and animal matter. These nocturnal reptiles can reach up to 60cm in length, quickly outgrowing aquariums and fish tanks.

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A new born grasping the art of swimming.

For me, the most fascinating aspect of the pig-nosed turtle is their countless number of specialised adaptations. Unusually for freshwater turtles, the pig-nosed turtle has forelimbs modified as flippers, resembling those of marine turtles. This adaptation helps them ‘fly’ through the water, earning them the less common name of ‘Fly River Turtle’. In addition, their protruding pig-like snout is adapted for breathing air while submerged.  Its grey or olive coloured carapace (shell) lacks the hard scutes (plates) of other turtles and tortoises, and is instead more leathery in texture. This gives the pig-nosed turtle a more streamlined shape. These are just a few of the pig-nosed turtle’s superb adaptations.

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Most people have not heard of the pig-nosed turtle and some may never know about them. The pig-nosed turtle was recently added to the IUCN Red List of endangered species and their population is on the decline. One of their biggest threats is the international pet trade – thousands, sometimes even tens of thousands, of pig-nosed turtles are taken from their natural habitat and shipped off around the world to end up in aquariums and fish tanks, resulting in a rapid decline of their native populations.. Furthermore, they are threatened by demand for their eggs. With an undeniably unique appearance and array of wonderful evolutionary adaptations, the pig-nosed turtle deserves to be protected.

The Tiger

Unbelievably powerful and expertly agile, the tiger (Panthera tigrisis the largest member of the cat family and the focus of tonight’s final episode of Dynasties. They occupy a vast but fragmented range from the dense jungles of Indonesia all the way up to the snowy expanses of Siberia – demonstrating their excellent adaptability in a plethora of different habitats and ecosystems. The largest individuals are found in Siberia, where the males can reach up to 300kg, yet still possess the power to jump as high as 10 metres – over five times the height of an average person.

Tiger

Tigers are magnificent hunters, consuming a diet of mainly hoofed animals such as Sambar deer, wild boar and water buffalo, although this diet will vary considerably depending on their habitat. The most striking feature of the tiger is their fiery orange coat marked with charcoal-black stripes. This beautiful fur pattern provides superb camouflage in the autumnal-toned vegetation. Their tail, which is also striped, helps tigers maintain balance when chasing after prey or climbing rocky tracts.

The tiger is the national animal of Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea and Vietnam, but these mammals are not being given the respect they deserve. Fewer than 4,000 tigers remain in the wild, spread out over six subspecies, with the South China tiger being most at threat (most likely extinct in the wild). Nine subspecies of tiger used to roam our planet, but within the past century, the Javan, Caspian and Bali tiger have all become extinct – forever gone because of human’s actions.

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Tigers occupy a range of habitats from swamps to forests to snowy plains.

It is estimated that wild tiger numbers have dropped by an abhorrent 95% since the beginning of the 20th century and now all six extant subspecies are considered either endangered (the Bengal, Siberian and Indo-Chinese tigers) or critically endangered (the Malayan, South China and Sumatran tigers). The cause of their suffering is due to human conflict; habitat loss and fragmentation; and poaching. Unfortunately, tigers live in some of the most densely populated places on earth so conflict with humans is almost inevitable in our ever-increasing crowded world. Tiger parts are also used in the fruitless and detrimental practice of traditional Chinese medicine.

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A mother and her cubs enjoying a leisurely swim.

Thankfully, conservation organisations such as the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) are working closely with governments to resolve human-tiger conflicts and establish larger national parks where these tigers can hopefully live in relative peace – tigers are extremely territorial are require up to 450 kilometres squared each, so large habitats are essential. However, tigers are far from safe and their conflict with humans will only worsen unless drastic action is immediately taken. These majestic cats play such a vital ecological and cultural role in Asia that their extinction would be shamefully inexcusable.

The Painted Wolf

Also commonly known as the African wild dog, the painted wolf (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered canid native to savanna and arid habitats of sub-Saharan Africa. Although these carnivores have a range of different names, my personal favourite is the ‘painted wolf’ because it summarises their appearance perfectly. They have a wonderful, patchy coat expressing gold, black. white, brown and cream tones – like splatters of paint on a canvas. This unique pattern makes the painted wolf an unmistakable carnivore.

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Painted wolves are exceptionally social creatures, living in highly organised packs containing anywhere between 6 and 40 individuals. These packs are usually led by a monogamous breeding pair (a king and queen) which will have a litter of six to sixteen pups (the average being 10), who are cooperatively reared and cared for by the entire pack. The social life of painted wolves is admirable; they will support sick and injured-relatives by sharing their food and their love.

This carnivore is a specialised pack hunter of medium-sized antelopes and although they may not possess the speed of the cheetah, they certainly have more stamina, being able to pursue their prey at 66 km/h over 3-5 kilometres. They are diurnal predators (they hunt during daylight) and have a hugely varied diet including impala, wildebeest, waterbuck, Thomson’s gazelle, kob, reedbuck, lechwe, duiker, oribi and zebra – just to name a few. However, this diet will vary from location to location. They will usually target sick, frail or injured individuals and collaboratively take them down by cutting off escape routes and eventually isolating their meal. Their hunting strategy is one of the most effective in the world, with a hunting success rate of up to 90% in certain areas – a colossal statistic when compared with the leopard’s 30-40% success rate and the lion’s 25-30% success rate. This earns the painted wolves the respected crown for being one of the best hunters in the world.

Painted Wolf

Aside from its phenomenal endurance, painted wolves have a range other adaptations suited for survival. One of the most obvious is their blotchy coat which blends in perfectly with their golden savanna habitat. They also have huge, satellite dish ears and highly evolved noses which gives them a superb sense of hearing and smell. However, arguably their most fascinating adaptation is their ability to learn. These dogs need to know how to effectively hunt certain animals and the best tactics to survive under the harsh rule of mother nature. These necessary skills can be passed down through generations because they are quick, intelligent learners.

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A couple of painted wolf pups.

This species once roamed throughout sub-Saharan Africa but now can only be found in small fragmented locations. In 2016, they were listed as endangered by the IUCN, with an estimated total population of 6,600 individuals. Their ongoing threats include habitat loss and fragmentation, disease and human conflict. Painted wolves are one of my favourite animals – I am fascinated by their intelligence, their complex societies, their stunning coat and their expert hunting ability. With so few left, their conservation is vitally important. I am excited to witness the story of a pack of painted wolves in the upcoming episode of Dynasties – airing at 8pm tonight (GMT+0). I am sure the Dynasties team will perfectly capture the wonder and beauty of these animals.